HSK Level 3 Grammar

Today I’d like to talk about one significant part in the HSK level 3 grammar, which is called “complement”.

No. 1 结果补语 Result Complement: 好

In HSK level 3 Grammar, “V + 好” means that the action is completed and satisfactory, such as “吃好”, “准备好”, etc. There is a certain difference between the result complement “完” and the result complement “好”. The “完” only means that it is over, but does not have the meaning that people are satisfied.

Eg:今晚的电影票小刚已经买好了。

Eg:去旅游的东西追备好了吗?

No. 2 趋向补语 Directional Complement

In HSK level 3 Grammar, “V + 来/ 去” indicates the direction of action, “来” indicates the direction towards the speaker, “去” indicates the direction away from the speaker. The most commonly used verbs are “上”, “下”, “进”, “出”, “回”, “过” and “起”.

Eg:我在楼上等你,你上来吧。

Eg:谁在外边?你出去看看吧。

If the object is an object noun, it can be placed before or after “来 / 去”. If the action has been completed or realized, it is often placed after “来 / 去”.

Eg:明天要带作业来=明天要带来作业

Eg:帮我买来点儿面包=帮我买点儿面包来

Eg:哥哥买回来了一个西瓜

If the object is a location noun, put it before “来 / 去”.

Eg:小狗下楼来了

Eg:老师进教室来了

Eg:我回北京去了

No.3 可能补语 Probable Complement

In HSK level 3 Grammar, “V 得 + complement” or “V 不 + complement” indicates whether it is possible to achieve a certain result and purpose. The interrogative form is “V 得 + complement; V 不 + complement”.

Eg: 我看得清楚那个汉字

Eg:楼太高了,我上不去

Eg:老师说的话,你听得见听不见?

Read More: How to pass HSK 4 listening?

No.4 时量补语 Time Complement

S + V + 了+ duration + O indicates the duration of the action

Eg:他工作了三年

Eg:我们坐了一个小时公共汽车

S + V + 了+ duration + O + 了 indicates the duration of the action still in progress

Eg:看了一个小时书了

Eg:学习了一年汉语了

No.5 复杂的状态补语 Complex State Complement

In HSK level 3 Grammar, V / adj + 得 + state complement can express a certain state.

Eg:孩子们玩儿得不想回家

Eg:弟弟高兴得跳了起来

趋向补语的引申义 Extended Meaning of Directional Complement of HSK 3

In Chinese, verb / Adjective + directional complement has other meanings. “出来” means starting from nothing and producing new things.

Eg:这个字你能写出来吗

Eg:我想出来一个好办法

It can also represent discrimination and recognition, from implicit to apparent meaning.

Eg:你听出来这是谁的声音了吗

Eg:我看出来了,他是我的小学同学

“Adjective + 下来” means changes from dynamic to static, from strong to weak, from fast to slow.

Eg:前边的车越来越慢,停下来了

Eg:天黑下来了,我们回家吧

“Verb + 起来” means that the memory has a result

“Verb + up” means that the memory has a result

Read More: